Growing popularity of zero and near-zero emission vehicles among consumers and car manufacturers has not gone unnoticed by the legislature. The 2017 legislative session revealed a push in favor of increasing the amount of such vehicles in the State through purchase incentive and tax deduction programs, as well as widespread installation of electric charging infrastructures.
The proposed legislation supports the existing emission reduction Air Quality Improvement Program (AQIP) and the million electric car Charge Ahead California Initiative (CACI), two measures that facilitate a future where most, if not all Californians, own and regularly use zero or near-zero emission vehicles. The Air Quality Improvement Program is a voluntary incentive program, created by AB 118 (2007) and administered by the State Air Resources Board, that works to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions by funding clean vehicle, equipment projects, and research on alternative fuels and air quality. The Charge Ahead California Initiative, created by AB 1275 (2014), sets goals of placing in service at least 1,000,000 zero-emission and near-zero-emission vehicles by January 1, 2023, and in doing so, increase access to such vehicles for disadvantaged, low-income, and moderate-income communities and consumers. This post will provide a brief analysis of the relevant provisions by category. Continue reading
Posted in Energy, Greenhouse Gas, Legislation, Transportation
Tagged California, Electric Vehicles, Electricity, Energy, Legislation, near-zero emission vehicles, Policy, Transportation, zero emission vehicles
In the 2017 legislative session, there is a clear trend that shows the intent to focus and prioritize energy and climate policy for low-income and disadvantaged communities. This post will provide a short analysis on the priorities broken down by specific area or category.
Posted in Energy, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Legislation, Renewable Energy, Water
Tagged California, Cap and Trade, Climate Change, Distributed Energy Resources, Electricity, Energy, Energy Efficiency, GHGs, Legislation, Policy, solar, Solar Thermal, Water
With the growing installation of solar photovoltaic systems in California, more homeowner’s associations (HOAs) are using a specific provision of the Davis-Stirling Common Interest Development Act (DSA) (Civil Code Section 4000 et seq.) to regulate the installation of rooftop solar on common area roofs of multi-family common interest developments (apartment, condo complexes, etc.). The DSA defines the form of organization and ownership interest in community apartment projects, condominium projects, planned developments, and stock cooperatives. A specific provision of the DSA governs the restrictions on ownership and transfers of exclusive use of any portion of a common area to a member for the installation of a rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal system.
This post will explain the relevant provisions of the DSA and Solar Rights Act (SRA) to frame this residential real estate issue. It will focus on use of statutory ownership rights and transfer of interest between the board of the association that oversees uses in common areas and an individual separate property owner that seeks to install a rooftop solar PV or solar thermal energy system on a common area rooftop. The discussion is limited to built or future residential common interest developments, as defined by Civil Code Section 4100, and excludes both the Subdivided Lands Act (Business and Professions Code Section 11000 et seq.) and Commercial and Industrial Common Interest Development Act (Civil Code Section 6500-6876). Continue reading
Posted in Energy, Renewable Energy
Tagged California, Common Interest Development, Davis-Stirling Act, Electricity, Energy, HOA, photovoltaics, Rootop Solar, solar, Solar Rights Act, Solar Thermal
On Monday, the CAISO hosted a call to review the Draft GHG Emission Tracking Report and methodology paper that explains the draft’s preliminary results. The report shows estimated GHG emissions for dispatch of internal CAISO resources, net imports (including dynamic resources that are an interchange schedule energy transfer between the CAISO and an outside balancing authority area (BAA) or EIM BAA and another BAA if in the real-time market), and transfers from western EIM entities into the CAISO BAA. This post will discuss these documents to frame the value and limits of this type of reporting by the CAISO. Continue reading
Posted in Energy, Greenhouse Gas, Renewable Energy
Tagged CAISO, California, CO2, EIM, Electricity, Emissions, Energy, GHGs, methodology
The issue of accurately attributing greenhouse gases (GHG) to the load that caused the emission remains a difficult issue for GHG accounting. We previously posted about causation as the basis for attributing GHG emissions from electricity. In this post, we will discuss the issues around accurately attributing GHG emissions using a locally-relevant emission factor and California’s recently passed GHG emission intensity reporting requirement under AB 1110 (Statutes 2016, Chapter 656).
The Legislature enrolled SB 32 and AB 197 on August 25, 2016. These bills create both the future target that will govern GHG emission reduction programs and a higher level of legislative oversight over the California Air Resources Board (CARB). These bills must both become law for either to take effect next January and are expected to be signed by Governor Brown in the near term. This post will examine these bills to provide the reader with an overview of the where California is and intends to move in the future.
Posted in Energy, Greenhouse Gas, Legislation
Tagged AB 32, California, climate planning, CO2, CO2e, Electricity, Energy, Greenhouse Gas, Legislation
When the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) released its original Proposed Principles of Governance for a regional independent system operator (ISO), it included a proposal for the development of a methodology to track and account for emissions that are attributable to California load and resources located in California and out-of state resources serving California load. I previously wrote about this document to provide an overview and background information. The revised Proposed Principles of Governance omitted Principle 2 regarding Greenhouse Gas (GHG) accounting but emphasized that such a system remains a priority for the CAISO and necessary piece to an expanded regional ISO.
Specifically, the second bullet of the original proposed Principle 2 stated:
“To accommodate a regional balancing authority area spanning multiple states, the ISO will need to develop a transparent methodology for tracking and accounting for greenhouse gas emissions, which must include a means to identify such emissions that are attributable to California load and resources located in California and out-of-state resources serving California load.”
I will examine exactly what that could entail and lay out some of the issues of creating a system in a multi-state ISO where no other potential participating state regulates GHGs.
Posted in Energy, Greenhouse Gas
Tagged California, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Offsets, climate planning, CO2, CO2e, Electricity, Energy, Greenhouse Gas, Renewable, Renewable Energy Credits